Hitting Ones Children for the Purpose of Disciplining

  1. Shaykh Ibn Baaz rahimahullaah:

Q: What is the ruling on hitting children under the age of ten years, on what basis do they do this? And what is your advice? May Allaah reward you with good.

A: It is for the father and the mother to discipline their child if they see the need for that; even if the child was younger than ten, and even if he was younger than seven. If they saw the need to discipline their child – whether he was a boy or a girl – then there is no harm in that. However it is to be done with that which is appropriate, and does not harm the child. A light disciplining, that will benefit him and not harm him. Such as if he were to fight with his younger siblings, or mess up the house and caused harm, and the like of that – then he is to be disciplined with being hit lightly, or stern speech to deter him [from that], or a light hitting, or by preventing him from some things that he wants, until he becomes disciplined – by the mother or the father, or the older brother if he does not have a father or mother. Or by his paternal uncle, or his maternal aunt, in accordance with his situation. Meaning: those that raise him and look after him, it is for them to discipline him. Whether that person was ones mother, or father, or maternal uncle, or maternal aunt, or elder brother; in accordance with his circumstances. So the one who raises him and looks after him; he can discipline him with that which does not harm him. Something light that brings about benefit.

See: http://www.binbaz.org.sa/node/17865

  1. Shaykh Muhammad Naasir ud-Deen al-Albaanee rahimahullaah:

Q: Is it permissible to hit children for the purpose of disciplining them?

A: My view regarding this is based on his sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam saying: “Order your children with the prayer when they are seven [lunar] years, and hit them for it [i.e. if they do not comply] when they are ten [lunar] years, and separate between them in the beds.”[1]

And this narration means that one raising children – the father or the mother – it is not for them to hit their children due to this highly important matter, and it is the prayer; unless the child reaches the age of ten [lunar] years. As for before that [age]; then it is not for the father except that he uses fine speech sometimes, and he uses speech that has in it some harshness – in accordance with the age of the child – at other times. As for hitting, then it is not allowed unless the child has reached ten [lunar] years of age. This is what I understand from this narration.

  1. Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih al-`Uthaymeen rahimahullaah:

Q: Is it permissible to hit a young child if he makes a mistake? And will doing so have an effect on his psychology? And how should a person direct a young child in the early stages?

A: If the young child can be corrected through hitting – and it was a must – then there is no harm in that. And this is from the [well-known] customary practices of the people. However in the case disciplining was not brought about through hitting, such as a baby in the cradle, if he were to scream and then his mother hit him; this is not allowed. Because it causes him pain without having any benefit.

And this matter [of hitting] revolves around: if discipline of the young child established through hitting or not? And [even] if hitting did discipline him, he is not to be hit forcefully, nor is he to be hit on the face, nor is he to be hit in any place that may kill him. Rather he is hit on his back, or his shoulder and the like; in the places that he will not die as a result of. And hitting on the face has its dangers, because the face is the most elevated and noble body part a human has. So if he is hit on his face he receives humiliation and shame more than if he were to be hit upon his back. For this reason hitting on the face was prohibited.

  1. Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan may Allaah preserve him:

Q: Regarding hitting ones young children for the purpose of disciplining them – what is your view regarding that; and is it from [the ways of] disciplining?

A: Yes, this is what the Prophet sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam ordered with; in his saying: ‘Command your children with the prayer when they are the age of seven [lunar] years, and hit them for it at the age of ten [if they do not comply], and separate between them in their beds.”[2]

So the parent hits his child for the purpose of disciplining them. However he does not hit him forcefully. Rather he hits him so that the child feels pain but the hitting does not harm him, in accordance with the command of the Prophet sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam.

The guardian hits and disciplines, and the teacher hits and disciplines, and the parent hits and disciplines – within the guidelines of the Legislation. These are things that must be done. They are from cultivation, and for the welfare of the people. This is not from domestic violence, just as some people who have appeared [claim]. They warn against the fathers and the teachers rule and command, and they warn against hitting. Hitting has in it good; however it [also] has its limits, and its place. So we must carry out that which the Messenger sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam commanded with, because it contains in it benefit.

[1] Reported by Aboo Daawood no. 495. Shaykh al-Albaanee rahimahullaah said ‘Hasan, Saheeh’; good, authentic in his checking of Sunan Abee Daawood.

[2] ibid.

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Seeking Permission when Entering Upon Ones Mother or Sister and the Like

Allaah – the Most High – said:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَدْخُلُوا بُيُوتًا غَيْرَ بُيُوتِكُمْ حَتَّىٰ تَسْتَأْنِسُوا وَتُسَلِّمُوا عَلَىٰ أَهْلِهَا

Sooratun-Noor; (24):27

[[Meaning: O you who believe! Do not enter houses other than your own, until you have asked permission and greeted their inhabitants.]]

Imaam al-Qurtubee rahimahullaah said in his explanation of the Qur∙aan ‘al-Jaami` li Ahkaamil-Qur∙aan’:

The reason for the revelation of this verse is: that which at-Tabaree and other than him report from `Adee bin Thaabit that a woman from the Ansaar tribe said: ‘O Messenger of Allaah! When I am in my house upon a condition that I do not like anyone to see me upon; neither my father nor my son. So my father comes and enters the place I am in, and until now men from my family enter where I am, while I am in such a state – so what should I do? So the verse was revealed.

And he said: “…so if your mother or your sister were living in the same house as you then they [i.e. the people of knowledge] have said: you should [before entering the place they are in] clear your throat, or stamp your foot so that they are notified and aware of your entering…” “…Because ones mother or sister they could be upon a condition that they dislike that you see them in.

Ibnul-Qaasim said that [Imaam] Maalik rahimahullaah said: ‘And a man should seek permission from his mother and his sister if he wishes to enter the place they are in.’

And `Ataa bin Yasaar reported that a man said to the Prophet sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam: ‘Should I seek permission when entering the place where my mother is?’ He said: “Yes.” He [the man] said: ‘But I serve her.’ He said: “Seek permission from her.” So he [the man] consulted him three times. Then he said: “Do you like that you would see her naked?!” He [the man] said: ‘No.’ So he sallAllaahu alaihi wa sallam said: “Then seek permission from her” at-Tabaree mentioned it.

Shaykh Muhammad al-Ameen bin Muhammad al-Mukhtaar ash-Shanqeetee rahimahullaah said in ‘Adwaa al-Bayaan’:

“Know that that which is more apparent, and not befitting that one diverts away from is: that it is binding upon a man that he seeks permission when entering the place where his mother, or his sister, or his sons, or his daughters are; [from those of them] that have reached puberty. Because if he were to enter the place where those aforementioned were – without seeking permission –, then it is possible that his eyes may set upon the `Awrah (parts that should be covered) of those mentioned. And that is something impermissible for him.

And Ibn Hajr rahimahullaah said in explanation of the narration: ‘Verily! The command to seek permission when entering has been enjoined because of the sight, (i.e. that one should not look unlawfully at the state of others).’[1]

“And we take from it that it is legislated to seek permission from everybody – even from those relatives it is forbidden for him to marry; so that the `Awrah (parts that should be covered) is not exposed.

And al-Bukhaaree rahimahullaah reports in ‘al-Adab al-Mufrad’ from a narration of Naafi`: That the children of Ibn `Umar radiyAllaahu `anhumaa if they reached the age of puberty he would separate them. And they would not enter the place where he was except if they sought permission.[2]

And from `Alqamah: that a man came to Ibn Mas`ood and said: ‘Should I seek permission to enter the place where my mother is?’ He said: “[Yes]; for you would not wish to see her in every condition.”[3]

And from Muslim bin Nudhayr that he said: “A man asked Hudhayfah, saying: ‘Should I seek permission when entering the place where my mother is?’ So he said: ‘If you did not seek permission when entering upon her you may see that which you dislike.’”[4]

And from Moosaa bin Talhah [bin `Ubaydillaah] that he said: “I entered with my father to where my mother was. He entered, so I followed him. So he turned and pushed me until I fell back onto my backside. Then he said: ‘Do you enter without seeking permission?!’”[5]

And from `Ataa that he asked Ibn `Abbaas: ‘Should I seek permission to enter the place my sister is in?’ So he said: ‘Yes.’ I said: ‘But they live under my care.’ He said: ‘Would you like to see her naked?!’[6]

And the chains of narration for these reports are authentic.” End of Ibn Hajr’s speech.

So these narrations from these companions strengthen that which we have mentioned from seeking permission when entering the places where those we mentioned are. And this is something also understood from the authentic narration: ‘Verily! The order of taking permission to enter has been enjoined because of the sight, (i.e. that one should not look unlawfully at the state of others)’.[7] So seeing the `Awrah (parts which should be covered) of those mentioned is impermissible as you can see.

And Ibn Katheer rahimahullaah mentions in explanation of this verse:

“And Hushaym said: Ash`ath bin Sawwaar informed us: from Kurudoos, from Ibn Mas`ood that he said: ‘It is upon you to seek permission when entering where your mothers or your sisters are.’

And Ibn Jurayj said: I heard `Ataa bin Abee Rabaah narrating that Ibn `Abbaas radiyAllaahu `anhumaa said: “There are three verses that the people have neglected. Allaah the Most High said: “Indeed, the most honourable of you with Allah are those of you who are most fearful and obedient [to Allaah].”[8] He said: But they [the people] say: ‘Indeed the most noble of you with Allaah are the ones with the biggest houses.’ He said: ‘And the people have totally neglected and forgotten all of mannerisms.’ I said: “Should I seek permission to enter upon my orphan sisters under my care, if they are with me in the same house?” He said: ‘Yes.’ So I repeated it to him again; so that he would allow me, but he refused – saying: ‘Would you like to see her naked?!’ I said: “No.” He said: ‘Then seek permission.’ So I consulted him again. So he said: ‘Do you like that you obey Allaah?!’ I said: ‘Yes.’ He said: ‘Then seek permission.’

Ibn Jurayj said: And Ibn Taawoos informed me that his father said: “There is not I woman I dislike to see her `Awrah (parts that should be covered) more than those whom it is forbidden for me to marry.” He said: ‘And he was strict regarding that.’”

And Ibn Jurayj narrated from az-Zuhree, saying: I heard Huzayl bin Shurahbeel al-Awdee, al-A`maa [saying] that he heard Ibn Mas`ood say: ‘It is upon you to seek permission when entering where your mothers are. End.”

Ash-Shawkaanee rahimahullaah mentions in his explanation of the Qur∙aan ‘Fathul-Qadeer’:

“And Sa`eed bin Mansoor and al-Bukhaaree in ‘al-Adab’ report from a narration of Ibn Mas`ood radiyAllaahu `anhu that he said: ‘It is upon a man to seek permission when entering where his father, or his mother, or his brother, or his sister is.’”[9] And Ibn Abee Shaybah and al-Bukhaaree reported the like of that from a narration of Jaabir.[10]

And in the Kuwaiti Fiqh Encyclopaedia it states[11]:

“And if there are any of those whom it is forbidden for him to marry in his house – such as his mother, or his sister, or the like of them – from those that it is not permissible for him to see naked, whether male or female; then it is not allowed for him to enter upon them without seeking permission. This is the opinion of the Hanafis and the Maalikis. And seeking permission – according to them – in this case is obligatory; and it is not allowed to leave it off. To the extent the Maalikis say: whoever denies the obligation of seeking permission to enter has disbelieved, because it is from those things which are known from the religion by necessity.”[12]

It further mentions:[13]

“And the Shaafi`ees allow that a man enters upon those whom it is forbidden for him to marry – if they live with him – without seeking permission to enter. However it is upon him to notify them of his entrance with the like of him clearing his throat, or stamping of the shoes, and the like; so that those who are naked could cover up.”[14]

Shaykh ibn Baaz rahimahullaah was asked [15]:

Q: Regarding the people of a [single] household seeking permission when entering upon each other?

A: The Sunnah is that they seek permission when entering upon each other. This is what is legislated.  Even the husband should seek permission when entering upon his wife; for he may see her in a condition that is not appropriate. So it is befitting that he seeks permission from his family, so that they know of his arrival. And if there was anything that they needed to cover up, they could cover it up – so that he is not offended by anything. The intent is that seeking permission to enter is required from the husband, the slave, the brother, the paternal uncle, and the like of them.


[1] Agreed upon. Reported by al-Bukhaaree no. 6241; & Muslim no. 2156.

[2] Chapter 486: When your Children reach Puberty. Shaykh al-Albaanee rahimahullaah said in his checking of ‘al-Adab al-Mufrad’ its chain of narration is authentic.

[3] Reported by al-Bukhaaree in ‘al-Adab al-Mufrad’, Chapter 487: Seeking Permission when entering where ones Mother is. Shaykh al-Albaanee rahimahullaah said its chain of narration is authentic. Also reported by at-Tabaraanee in ‘Musnad ash-Shaameeyeen’ pp. 360 from a chain of narration of Huzayl bin Shurahbeel that he said: “I heard Ibn Mas`ood saying: ‘Upon you is to seek permission from your mothers [i.e. when entering where they are].’ Shaykh al-Albaanee rahimahullaah said: “And its chain of narration is good. All of the narrators are reliable.”

[4] Reported by al-Bukhaaree in ‘al-Adab al-Mufrad’, Chapter 487: Seeking Permission when entering where ones Mother is. Shaykh al-Albaanee rahimahullaah said its chain of narration is good. And in a variant wording it occurs the saying: ‘You may see that which offends you.’

[5] Reported by al-Bukhaaree in ‘al-Adab al-Mufrad’, Chapter 488: Seeking Permission when entering where ones Father is.  Shaykh al-Albaanee rahimahullaah graded it as having a weak chain of narration.

[6] Reported by al-Bukhaaree in ‘al-Adab al-Mufrad’, Chapter 490: Seeking Permission when entering where ones Sister is. Shaykh al-Albaanee rahimahullaah said its chain of narration is authentic. Ibn `Abbaas said: ‘So seeking permission is obligatory (upon all of the people).’

[7] Agreed upon. Reported by al-Bukhaaree no. 6241; & Muslim no. 2156.

[8] Sooratul-Hujuraat; (49):13

[9] Reported by al-Bukhaaree in ‘al-Adab al-Mufrad’, Chapter 491: Seeking Permission when entering where ones Brother is. Shaykh al-Albaanee rahimahullaah graded it as weak in his checking of ‘al-Adab al-Mufrad’.

[10] Reported by al-Bukhaaree in ‘al-Adab al-Mufrad’, Chapter 489: Seeking Permission when entering where ones Father or Son is. Shaykh al-Albaanee rahimahullaah graded it as weak in his checking of ‘al-Adab al-Mufrad’.

[11] Volume 3, pp. 146.

[12] See: Badaai` as-Sanaai` 5/124; & Ahkaamul-Qur∙aan of al-Jassaas 3/386; & ash-Sharh as-Sagheer 4/762; & Sharhul-Kaafee 2/1133; & al-Fawaakih ad-Dawaanee 2/427; & Tafseerul-Qurtubee 12/219.

[13] See footnote number 11.

[14] See: Mughnee al-Muhtaaj 4/199

[15] See: The Shaykh’s official website: http://www.binbaz.org.sa/node/8941

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How should the Night Prayer be Prayed?

Imaam al-Hajjaawee said in his book ‘Zaadul-Mustaqni`’ [a very summarised book on the Fiqh methodology of Imaam Ahmad rahimahullaah]:

“And the Taraaweeh [prayer] is twenty units (rak`ahs).”

Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih al-Uthaymeen rahimahullaah said in his explanation ‘ash-Sharhul Mumti`’ vol. 4 pp. 65-71:

“And the Taraaweeh prayer is an emphasised Sunnah, because it is from the standing in Ramadaan. And the Prophet sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam said: “Whoever stands [in prayer] in the month of Ramadaan out of sincere faith and hoping for Allaah’s reward, then all his previous sins will be forgiven.”[1]

And it was called ‘Taraaweeh’ (lit. sitting for rest), because it is from their customary practice when they prayed four units, they would sit for a short while to rest – based on the narration of `Aaishah radiyAllaahu `anhaa: “That the Prophet sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam used to pray four units, so do not ask me about their beauty and their length, then he would pray four units, so do not ask me about their beauty and their length, then he would pray three units.”[2] The point being that she said: “He would pray four then…” And the word ‘then’ indicates: order with a delay, and that there was a break between the first four, the second four, and the last three.

And with each set of four he gives the tasleem (saying ‘as-Salaamu `alaikum wa rahmatullaah’ to end the prayer) after every two units, as was explicitly mentioned in the narration of `Aaishah: “That he would pray eleven units, giving tasleem after every two units.”

And this is in opposition to that which some of the students of knowledge imagine: that they think the first four are to be gathered together with a single tasleem, and the second four are to be prayed in a like manner. And this delusion [of theirs] comes partly from their lack of following [and gathering] between all of the chains for this narration [of `Aaishah]; and partly because of their failure to see the narration of Ibn `Umar – radiyAllaahu `anhumaa –, which is: “That the Prophet sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam was asked about the night prayer so he said: ‘In twos, in twos.’”[3]

Based upon this it is binding to understand every [general] unrestricted narration mentioning the number of units to be prayed at night in light of this restricting [specific] text. And it is: that they are to be prayed in twos.

As for those [texts which] explicitly mention not doing so [i.e. not praying in twos] – such as praying the Witr prayer with five, seven, or nine units – then they are specific and [separate] from the generality of [the ruling of] this narration.[4]

So if it is said: “Why did Aaishah say: ‘He would pray four, then he would pray [another] four’?”

We say the answer is: because he combined the first four at the same time; so he prayed two, then immediately prayed the other two. Then he sat and waited for a period, then he resumed and prayed two units – following them with two more units. Then he sat for a[nother] period, then he prayed three.

So the Salaf (pious predecessors) extracted from this: that the four units are to be prayed with two tasleems, then the people rest, then they pray four [more], then they rest, then they pray three – if they were to pray eleven units.

As for his [the author, al-Hajjaawee’s] saying: ‘Twenty units’ – if we were to add and complete that with the lowest number of units for Witr – we would end up with twenty-three units. Because Taraaweeh would be prayed with twenty units, then Witr with three units. So the total would be twenty three units. This is the standing in Ramadaan.

So what is the proof?

The evidence is that which Aboo Bakr `Abdul-Azeez reported in ‘ash-Shaafee’ from Ibn Abbaas ‘that the Prophet sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam would pray twenty units in the month of Ramadaan.’[5]

However this narration is weak, and incorrect as being from the Prophet sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam. And that which is authentically reported from him – via the one who was most knowledgeable regarding his affairs during the night – Aaishah, the Mother of the Believers, may Allaah be pleased with her that she said: “He would not increase upon eleven units.” When asked regarding the prayer of the Prophet sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam in Ramadaan; she said: “He would not increase upon eleven units inside of Ramadaan or outside of Ramadaan.”[6] And this is an explicit text from Aaishah, and she was from the most knowledgeable of people regarding that which he used to do at night.

So if someone was to say: “It has been mentioned regarding Umar ‘that he ordered Ubayy bin K`ab to lead the people in prayer with twenty-three units’.”

We say: this is also not authentic, rather it has been reported that Yazeed bin Roomaan said: “The people used to pray twenty-three units in Ramadaan during the time of Umar.”[7] However Yazeed bin Roomaan[8] did not witness the time of Umar – resulting in their being a breakage in [the chain of] this narration.

Furthermore this narration does not mention that Umar knew of that. And that which was done in the time of Umar is not a proof, unlike that which was carried out in the time of the Messenger – if he did not criticise it – then it is a proof; because the Messenger sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam if he knew something [and did not criticise it] then he approved of it, and if he did not know of it then the revelation approved of it. However in the time of Umar there was no revelation – so we do not describe Umar as being pleased with it unless it is clearly attributed to Umar. However [Imaam] Maalik rahimahullaah reports in ‘al-Muwatta’ with a chain of narration from the most authentic chains of narration ‘That Umar bin al-Khattaab radiyAllaahu `anhu ordered Tameem ad-Daaree and Ubayy bin K`ab to stand with the people in prayer [i.e. to lead the people] with eleven units.”[9]

So this is a clear evidence, and an order from Umar radiyAllaahu `anhu – and it is what is befitting from him – may Allaah be pleased with him, as he was from the most ardent of the people in clinging to the Prophetic way. So if the Messenger sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam did not exceed upon eleven units, then we hold that Umar bin al-Khattaab radiyAllaahu `anhu would cling tightly to this number.

Based upon this: what is correct regarding this issue is: that the Sunnah [Prophetic way] regarding the Taraaweeh is that it is eleven units. Ten units are to be prayed with even numbers [i.e. in twos], and one by itself as Witr.

And the Witr is as Ibnul-Qayyim mentioned: It is the one [single unit] – not the units that preceded it.”[10] So that which preceded it is Qiyaamul-Layl (Standing [in prayer] in the night), and the Witr is the one [single unit].

And if a person were to pray the Witr as three – after the ten – so that his prayer was thirteen units, then there is no harm. Because this is also authentically established from a narration of Abdullaah bin Abbaas radiyAllaahu `anhumaa: ‘That the Prophet sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam prayed thirteen units.’[11]

So this is the Sunnah.

Despite this, if a person were to pray twenty-three, or more than that – then he is not to be criticised. However, if he requested the people of the mosque not to increase upon the number that is Sunnah [authentically established from the Prophet sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam], then that is something they should agree with foremostly, because the proof is with them. But if they [the people] were to remain quiet and were pleased with [the Imam] leading them in prayer with ninety-nine units, then there is no harm in that.


[1] Agreed upon. Reported by al-Bukhaaree no. 2009; & Muslim no. 759.

[2] Agreed upon. Reported by al-Bukhaaree no. 1147; & Muslim no. 738.

[3] Agreed upon. Reported by al-Bukhaaree no. 990; & Muslim no. 749.

[4] Such as: the narration reported by an-Nasaaee no. 1698 from a narration of Aaishah that the Prophet sallAllaahu alaihi wa sallam would not give the Tasleem for the two units of witr. [Shaykh al-Albaanee rahimahullaah graded it as ‘Shaath’ – contradictory to that which is more authentic].

And the narration of Muslim no. 737 that the Prophet sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam would pray thirteen units at night, and he prayed Witr with five units – not sitting except at the end of them.

And from a narration reported by Ibn Maajah no. 1192 that the Prophet sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam would pray the Witr with five or seven units, not separating between them with Salaam (i.e. tasleem) nor any speech. [Shaykh al-Albaanee rahimahullaah said ‘Saheeh’, authentic.]

[5] Reported by Ibn Abee Shaybah in his ‘Musannaf’ 2/294; and al-Khateeb in ‘al-Muwaddhih’ 1/219; and al-Bayhaqee in his ‘Sunan’ 2/496. And al-Bayhaqee said: “It is weak”. Also declared weak by az-Zayla`ee in ‘Nasb ar-Raayah’ 2/153; and as-Suyootee in ‘al-Haawee’ 2/73; and al-Haafidh in ‘al-Fath’ 4/205-206.

[6] Agreed upon. Reported by al-Bukhaaree no. 1147; & Muslim no. 738.

[7] Reported by Maalik in ‘al-Muwatta’ 1/138; & al-Bayhaqee 2/496; & al-Marwazee in ‘Qiyaamul-Layl’ pp. 91.

[8] Yazeed bin Roomaan. He was: Aboo Rooh al-Asadee al-Madanee, the freed slave of aali-Zubayr. He was from the Taabi`een (the generation after the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam), reliable. The six books (Bukhaaree, Muslim, at-Tirmidhee, Abu Dawud, Ibn Maajah, an-Nasaaee) and others all report from him, he died 130H. See: ‘Tahdheebut-Tahdheeb’ 11/325.

And it has been reported from as-Saaib bin Yazeed that he said: “They [i.e. the people] would stand in Ramadaan during the time of Umar bin al-Khattaab radiyAllaahu `anhu with twenty units.” Reported by Abdur-Razzaaq 7730 and 7733; & al-Firyaabee in ‘as-Siyaam’ 1/76; & al-Bayhaqee in ‘as-Sunan’ 2/496; & al-Marwazee in ‘Qiyaamul-Layl’ pp. 91; & `Abdur-Razzaaq has the wording: ‘Twenty-one [units]’. And it’s chain of narration is authentic.

And Yahyaa bin Sa`eed reported: ‘That Umar bin al-Khattaab radiyAllaahu `anhu ordered a man to pray twenty for them. [i.e. to lead them in prayer]’. Reported by Ibn Abee Shaybah 2/393 – however in it[s chain] there is a breakage; as occurs in ‘at-Tuhfah‘ 2/85 of al-Mubaarakfooree.

And Abul-Hasnaa reported ‘that `Alee ordered a man to lead them in prayer during Ramadaan with twenty.’ Reported by Ibn Abee Shaybah 2/393; & al-Bayhaqee 2/497 and he declared it to be weak.

And it has been reported from `Abdul `Azeez bin Rafee` that he said: “Ubayy used to lead the people in prayer during Ramadaan with twenty, and he would pray the Witr with three.” Reported by Ibn Abee Shaybah 2/293; however it has a breakage in its chain of narration – as occurs in ‘at-Tuhfah’ 2/75.

And Zayd bin Wahb reported ‘that Abdullaah bin Masood used to lead us in prayer during Ramadaan … with twenty units, and he would pray the Witr prayer with three.” Reported by Ibn Nasr in ‘Qiyaamul-Layl’ pp. 91; however there is a break in its chain – as occurs in ‘at-Tuhfah’ 2/75.

And al-Marwazee reported pp. 91; & Ibn Abee Shaybah 2/393 from a narration of Ataa bin Abee Rabaah that he said: “I witnessed the people praying twenty units during Ramadaan, and they would pray the Witr with three.” And they (al-Marwazee & Ibn Abee Shaybah) also report from Shutayr bin Shakal – and he was from the companions of Abdullaah [bin Masood] ‘that he would lead them in prayer with twenty, and pray Witr with three.’

From the pious predecessors (Salaf) that did so [i.e. prayed twenty for Taraaweeh] – as reported by the previous references – are: al-A`mash, and Sa`eed bin Jubayr, and Aboo Mijlaz, and Ibn Abee Mulaykah, and Abul-Bakhtaree, and other than them. And this is clear proof of them not limiting it.

[9] Muwatta Maalik 1/115; & al-Bayhaqee 2/496.

[10] Zaadul-Ma`aad 1/329

[11] Agreed upon. Reported by al-Bukhaaree no. 1138; & Muslim no. 764.

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The Stages through which Alcohol was Prohibited

Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih al-Uthaymeen rahimahullaah said in his explanation of ‘Bulooghul-Maraam‘ ‘Fathu Dhil-Jalaali wal-Ikraam‘ vol. 7 pp. 9-10:

Likewise the prohibition of alcohol was in four stages:

(1) The First Stage: Permissibility – although this is not considered from the stages – as it was based upon the original principle [i.e. the original principle regarding all affairs before Islaam was permissibility, until the Legislation came with a proof lifting that and stating otherwise]. However Allaah mentioned that in His saying – He the Most High –:

وَمِن ثَمَرَاتِ النَّخِيلِ وَالْأَعْنَابِ تَتَّخِذُونَ مِنْهُ سَكَرًا وَرِزْقًا حَسَنًا

Sooratun-Nahl; (16):67

[[Meaning: And from the fruits of the palm trees and grapevines you take intoxicant and good provision.]]

(2) Then the Second Stage: in His saying:

يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ ۖ قُلْ فِيهِمَا إِثْمٌ كَبِيرٌ وَمَنَافِعُ لِلنَّاسِ وَإِثْمُهُمَا أَكْبَرُ مِن نَّفْعِهِمَا

Sooratul-Baqarah; (2):219

[[Meaning: They ask you O Muhammad, concerning alcoholic drink and gambling. Say: “In them is a great sin, and some benefit for people, but their sin is greater than their benefit.”]]

(3) Then the Third Stage:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَقْرَبُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَأَنتُمْ سُكَارَىٰ حَتَّىٰ تَعْلَمُوا مَا تَقُولُونَ

Sooratun-Nisaa·; (4):43

[[Meaning: O you who have believed, do not approach prayer while you are intoxicated until you know what you are saying.]]

Then the Fourth Stage:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِنَّمَا الْخَمْرُ وَالْمَيْسِرُ وَالْأَنصَابُ وَالْأَزْلَامُ رِجْسٌ مِّنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطَانِ فَاجْتَنِبُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ

Sooratul-Maa·idah; (5):90

[[Meaning: O you who believe! Intoxicants, gambling, sacrificing on stone alters, and arrows for seeking luck or decision are an abomination of Satan’s handiwork. So strictly avoid all of that in order that you may be successful.]]

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The Stages through which Fasting was Prescribed

Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih al-Uthaymeen rahimahullaah said in his explanation of ‘Bulooghul-Maraam‘ ‘Fathu Dhil-Jalaali wal-Ikraam‘ vol. 7 pge. 9:

And know that the obligation of fasting was in three stages.

So first fasting the day of `Aashooraa (the 10th day of the first month in the Islamic calendar, Muharram) was made obligatory, then fasting the month of Ramadaan was prescribed for those who wished to fast it, then fasting the month of Ramadaan was made obligatory specifically [upon everybody; individually] – meaning: fasting it is a must.

(1) As for the first stage: then the proof for it is the Prophet sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam commanding his Companions to fast `Aashooraa.[1]

(2) And as for the second stage: then the proof for it is the saying of Allaah – the Exalted and Most High –:

وَعَلَى الَّذِينَ يُطِيقُونَهُ فِدْيَةٌ طَعَامُ مِسْكِينٍ ۖ فَمَن تَطَوَّعَ خَيْرًا فَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَّهُ ۚ وَأَن تَصُومُوا خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ ۖ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

Sooratul-Baqarah; (2):184

[[Meaning: And as for those who can fast with difficulty, they have a choice either to fast or to feed a poor person for every day. But whoever does good of his own accord, it is better for him. And that you fast is better for you – if only you knew.]]

Then this was abrogated by the verse that came after it; and it was not permitted [to break the fast] except for the sick person and the traveler.

(3) And as for the third stage: then the proof for it is His saying in the following verse:

شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ الَّذِي أُنزِلَ فِيهِ الْقُرْآنُ هُدًى لِّلنَّاسِ وَبَيِّنَاتٍ مِّنَ الْهُدَىٰ وَالْفُرْقَانِ ۚ فَمَن شَهِدَ مِنكُمُ الشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ ۖ وَمَن كَانَ مَرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِّنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ

Sooratul-Baqarah; (2):185

[[Meaning: The month of Ramadan in which was revealed the Qur·aan, a guidance for mankind and clear proofs for the guidance and the criterion between right and wrong. So whoever of you is resident and sees the crescent on the first night of the month, he must fast that month, and whoever is ill or upon a journey, then an equal number of other days.]]

So these are the three stages; and the wisdom in that is: fasting contains something of difficulty upon the souls – so the legislation gradated; bit by bit – because everything that is difficult upon the souls then Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, through His Wisdom and His Mercy, causes it to become binding upon the servants bit by bit.

[1] Agreed upon. As occurs in al-Bukhaaree no. 1892 & Muslim no. 1125 from a narration of `Aaishah and Ibn `Umar radiyAllaahu `anhum.

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Glad Tidings Upon the Arrival of the Month of Ramadaan

On the authority of Aboo Hurayrah radiyAllaahu `anhu that he said: the Messenger of Allaah sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam used to give glad tidings to his Companions, saying:

“The month of Ramadaan has come to you; a blessed month that Allaah has prescribed upon you that you fast it. In it the gates of Paradise are opened, and the gates of the Hellfire are shut, and in it the devils are chained up. In it is a night that is better than a thousand months. Whoever is deprived of its goodness has indeed been deprived.” Reported by Ahmad and an-Nasaa·ee.[1]

And it has been reported: “Ramadaan has come to you – the most noble of all months – so it is welcomed.”[2]

The month of fasting has come with blessings * So how noble a visitor that has come

And upon the authority of `Ubaadah radiyAllaahu `anhu in connected form:

“Ramadaan has come to you, a month of blessings that Allaah covers you within; so he sends down Mercy, and the sins are wiped out, and in it the supplications are answered. Allaah looks at your competing within it, and He boasts of you to His Angels – so show Allaah good from yourselves – for verily the miserable one is he who is deprived of Allaah’s Mercy within it.” Reported by at-Tabaraanee, and its narrators are reliable.[3]

And it occurs in al-Bukhaaree and Muslim from a narration of Aboo Hurayrah radiyAllaahu `anhu that the Prophet sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam that he said:

“When Ramadaan enters, the doors of the Heavens are opened, and the doors of the Hellfire are shut, and the devils are chained up.”[4] And in the wording of Muslim: “The doors of mercy are opened.”[5] And also reported by Muslim from a narration of Aboo Hurayrah in connected form: “When the month of Ramadaan comes the doors of Paradise are opened, and the doors of the Fire are shut, and the devils are chained up.”[6]

And he radiyAllaahu `anhu narrated that the Messenger of Allaah sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam said:

“When it is the first night of Ramadaan; the devils and the arrogant, oppressive jinn are shackled, and the gates of the Fire are shut – without a single one being opened. And the gates of Paradise are opened – without a single one being shut. And a caller calls: ‘O seeker of good; come forward!’ and ‘O seeker of evil; abstain! For there are those whom Allah frees from the Fire. And that is every night.'” Reported by al-Tirmidhee, an-Nasaa·ee and al-Haakim.[7]

Explanation of Shaykh Ibn Baaz rahimahullaah

All praise is for Allaah, and may peace and blessings be upon the Messenger of Allaah, and upon his family, his Companions, and those who follow his guidance.

Then to proceed:

There are a huge number of narrations established from the Messenger of Allaah sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam – regarding this noble month – the month of Ramadaan, indicating its great status; and that this month is the month of solace, and the month of beneficence, and the month of giving in charity, and the month of hastening to perform acts of obedience, and competing with regards to the various types of good.

A month in which the doors of the Heavens are opened, and in which the doors of Hellfire are shut. In it the devils are chained up. A month that Allaah made its fasting obligatory, and standing in its nights supererogatory. In it the doors of Paradise are opened, and the doors of Hellfire are shut, and the doors of the Heavens and the doors of mercy are opened, – and in it a caller calls out: “O seeker of good; come forward! and: O seeker of evil; abstain! For there are those whom Allah frees from the Fire. And that is every night.”

So it is befitting that the believing man and the believing woman compete in this good, and hasten during this noble month to perform acts of obedience. For it is a tremendous month, and there is not a month that passes by the Muslims better than it, and there is not a month that passes by the hypocrites worse than it – because of their lack of doing good within it, and their failure to give it its due right.

So the believer hastens to the performance of good, and differs with the people of hypocrisy regarding it; so he strives in obedience to Allaah and in performing the obligatory acts, and abandoning the prohibited affairs, and he hastens towards the various forms of good – from charities, and remembrance of Allaah by tasbeeh (i.e. saying ‘SubhaanAllaah‘ “I declare Allaah free of all imperfections”), and tahleel (i.e. saying ‘Laa ilaaha illaa Allaah‘ “There is none that has the right to be worshipped except Allaah alone”), and takbeer (i.e. saying ‘Allaahu akbar‘ “Allaah is the Greatest”), and reading the Qur·aan, and being plentiful with all types of good – especially reading the Qur·aan.

For this is the month of the Qur·aan, so it is befitting that the believer is plentiful in reading the Qur·aan within this month. Every letter is a good deed, and every good deed is multiplied tenfold. [So he should read] while reflecting and contemplating – just as Allaah the Exalted and Most High said:

كِتَابٌ أَنزَلْنَاهُ إِلَيْكَ مُبَارَكٌ لِّيَدَّبَّرُوا آيَاتِهِ وَلِيَتَذَكَّرَ أُولُو الْأَلْبَابِ

Soorah Saad; (38):29

[[Meaning: This is a blessed Book which We have revealed to you, O Muhammad, that they may reflect upon its verses and so that those of understanding would be reminded.]]

And He – the Exalted – said:

إِنَّ هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنَ يَهْدِي لِلَّتِي هِيَ أَقْوَمُ

Sooratul-Israa·; (17):9

[[Meaning: Verily, this Quran guides to that which is most just and right.]]

And He the Mighty and Majestic said:

وَهَٰذَا كِتَابٌ أَنزَلْنَاهُ مُبَارَكٌ فَاتَّبِعُوهُ وَاتَّقُوا لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ

Sooratul-An`aam; (6):155

[[Meaning: And this is a blessed Book which We have revealed, so follow it and fear Allah that you may receive mercy.]]

So it is befitting that the believer gives concern to this Mighty Book, the Qur·aan; and that he reflects upon it, and is plentiful in reading it. And the Prophet sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam used to revise the noble Qur·aan every night with Jibreel in this noble month; and in the final year [of his life] he revised it twice. So in this is an encouragement upon studying and revising the Qur·aan, and giving it concern, and being plentiful regarding that – due to that which it contains from tremendous good, and much reward. Every letter is a good deed, and every good deed is multiplied tenfold.

Likewise it is befitting that the believer is plentiful in giving in charity within it, and that he gives solace to the poor and the needy. The Prophet sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam said:

“Whoever provides food for a fasting person to break his fast with within it [i.e. Ramadaan]; then that will be a cause for his sins to be forgiven for him, and for his neck to be freed from the Fire, and for him is the like of his reward [i.e. the fasting persons].”[8]

And the Prophet sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam said:

“Whoever fasts the month of Ramadan out of sincere faith, and hoping to attain Allaah’s reward, then all his past sins will be forgiven.”[9]

And: “Whoever stands [in prayer] in the month of Ramadan out of sincere faith and hoping for Allaah’s reward, then all his previous sins will be forgiven.”[10]

And: “Whoever stands [in prayer] on the night of pre-decree out of sincere faith, and hoping for Allaah’s reward, then all his previous sins will be forgiven.”[11]

And the Prophet sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam said: Allaah – the Mighty and Majestic – said:

“Every [righteous] action of the son of Aadam will be multiplied for him, a good deed will be multiplied ten times up to seven hundred times. Allaah – the Mighty and Majestic – said: Except for fasting; for it is for Me, and I will reward for it, for [the fasting person] abandons his desires, and his food and his drink for My sake. There are two joys for the fasting person: the joy when he breaks his fast, and the joy when he meets his Lord.”[12]

And he sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam would say to his Companions when Ramadaan entered:

“Ramadaan has come to you, a month of blessings that Allaah covers you within; so he sends down mercy, and the sins are wiped out, and in it the supplications are answered. Allaah looks at your competing within it, and He boasts of you to His Angels – so show Allaah good from yourselves – for verily the miserable one is he who is deprived of Allaah’s Mercy within it.”[13]

And he sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam said:

“Whoever does not leave off false speech and acting in accordance with it, and foolishness; then Allaah is not in need of him leaving off his food and drink.”[14]

So it is obligatory upon the believer that he abstains from the prohibitions of Allaah. Sins are forbidden in every place and time; however during this noble month it is obligatory that a person is even more vigilant regarding them, and that the believer strives to safeguard his fasts, and protects them from all of the sinful affairs – such as: backbiting, and tale-carrying, and oppressing the people, and transgressing the bounds regarding anything of theirs; such as their wealth or their souls – and other than that from the sinful affairs, such as: eating from wealth attained by usury, and cheating in transactions, and backbiting, and tale-carrying, and eating from wealth attained by usury, and other than that from which Allaah has forbidden.

So the believer is cautious regarding all of the prohibitions of Allaah, and distances himself from them. He hopes in the reward of Allaah, and is fearful of the punishment of Allaah. He strives to perform that which Allaah has obligated; so he performs the [obligatory] prayers in congregation and is constant upon them in all of their five appointed times. He is righteous and obedient to his parents, and he keeps the ties of kinship. He calls to Allaah, and enjoins the good and forbids the evil. He is cautious of every evil and he strives regarding every good – especially in this noble month, the month of fasting, the month of giving in charity, the month of standing in prayer, the month in which the good deeds are multiplied.

So the believer strives to take advantage and make use of these days and these nights by fasting and standing in prayer. And the Prophet sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam has said:

“Whoever stands [in prayer] in the month of Ramadan out of sincere faith and hoping for Allaah’s reward, then all his previous sins will be forgiven.”[15]

And he sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam led the people in prayer three nights in Ramadaan, until the people gathered, then he left it off – out of fear that it would be made obligatory upon them.

Then during the caliphate of `Umar radiyAllaahu `anhu he gathered the people behind a single imaam; as they used to pray in multiple congregations until he gathered them behind a single imaam and led them in prayer. So occasionally he prayed twenty-three units, and occasionally he prayed twenty-one units.

So the affair of the believer in this regard is ample and wide; whether he were to pray eleven, or thirteen, or twenty-three – all of that has been made easy, and all praise is for Allaah.

And the Prophet sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam said:

“Prayer of the night is in twos.”[16] and he did not specify a set limit.

However if a person were to pray eleven or thirteen units as the Messenger sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam prayed – then that is better. And if he were to pray twenty-three, as the Companions did; or he were pray more than that, then this matter is something which is extensive – and all praise is for Allaah. Because the Messenger did not restrict it to a known number of units, however he would conclude it by praying a single unit. And [likewise] whether a person was to pray it at the start of the night or at the end of the night, or at the middle of the night – this is a broad, spacious affair – and all praise is for Allaah.

However it is recommended regarding the last ten that one remains awake just as the Prophet sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam would remain awake in the last ten.

As for the first twenty nights then the Sunnah (Prophetic way) is that one prays some of the night and sleeps – following the example of the Prophet sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam in that regard.

However it is obligatory that a person is cautious of all sins throughout all of the days and nights, and it is legislated that you safeguard your time by spending it in obedience to Allaah, by making tasbeeh (i.e. saying ‘SubhaanAllaah‘ “I declare Allaah free of all imperfections”), and by making tahleel (i.e. saying ‘Laa ilaaha illaa Allaah‘ “There is none that has the right to be worshipped except Allaah alone”), and by reading, and making remembrance [of Allaah], and seeking forgiveness, and by prayer, and the rest of the acts of worship. This time [in Ramadaan] you safeguard it, and are ardent upon it – such that none of it is lost or wasted. So it is maintained; either in obedience to Allaah, or in those things that are permissible.

Be warned and careful that none of it is wasted in that which Allaah has prohibited, such that it harms you in this life and in the Hereafter.

We ask Allaah to grant us all success, just as we ask Him to allow us – and yourselves – to complete its fasting and its standing in prayer. And we ask Allaah that he permits us – and yourselves – to hasten to good and to abstain from evil during it; indeed He is all-Hearing, Near.

And may peace and blessings be upon the Messenger of Allaah, and upon his family and his Companions.

[From ‘Wadhaaif Ramadaan‘ of `Abdur-Rahmaan bin Muhammad bin Qaasim d. 1392H rahimahullaah, which is a summary of ‘Lataaiful-Ma`aarif‘ of Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali d. 795H rahimahullaah. Shaykh ibn Baaz d. 1420H rahimahullaah has an audio explanation of this summary, which has been transcribed and published.]


[1] Reported by Imaam Ahmad nos. 7148, 8991, 8992, 9497; & an-Nasaa·ee no. 2106; & `Abdur-Razzaaq 8383; & Ibn Abee Shaybah 1/3; & Ishaaq ibn Raahawayh 1 &2; & Ibn Abdul-Barr in ‘at-Tamheed’ 16/154. Shaykh al-Albaanee rahimahullaah said ‘Saheeh’, authentic.

[2] Reported by al-Bayhaqee in ‘Shu`abul-Eemaan’ 3/314 no. 3637 with the wording: ‘The most noble of months is the month of Ramadaan’; from a narration of Aboo Sa`eed al-Khudree radiyAllaahu `anhu – and al-Bayhaqee said: “In its chain of narration is weakness”.

And he reported it as a saying of Ibn Mas`ood radiyAllaahu `anhu with the wording: ‘The most noble of the months is Ramadaan, and the most noble of the days is Friday” 3/314 no. 363; & at-Tabaraanee in ‘al-Kabeer’ no. 9000.

[3] al-Haythamee said in ‘Majma`uz-Zawaa·id’ 3/257-258 no. 4783: “Reported by at-Tabaraanee in ‘al-Kabeer’.

[4] Reported by al-Bukhaaree no. 1899; & Muslim no. 1079.

[5] Reported by Muslim no. 1079.

[6] Reported by Muslim no. 1079.

[7] Reported by at-Tirmidhee no. 682; & Ibn Maajah no. 1642; & an-Nasaa·ee no. 2107; & al-Haakim in ‘al-Mustadrak’ 1/586 no. 1532. Shaykh al-Albaanee rahimahullaah said regarding this narration: ‘Saheeh’, authentic.

[8] Reported by Ibn Khuzaymah 3/191-192 no. 1787; and al-Bayhaqee in ‘ash-Shu`ab’ 7/215-217 no. 3336; & al-Asbahaanee in ‘at-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb’ 2/349-350 no. 1753. And reported with a similar wording by at-Tirmidhee no. 807; & Ibn Maajah no. 1746.

[9] Agreed upon. Reported by al-Bukhaaree no. 38 & Muslim no. 760.

[10] Agreed upon. Reported by al-Bukhaaree no. 2009; & Muslim no. 759.

[11] Agreed upon. Reported by al-Bukhaaree no. 2014; & Muslim no. 760.

[12] Agreed upon. Reported by al-Bukhaaree nos. 1894 and 5927; & Muslim no. 1151.

[13] al-Haythamee said in ‘Majma`uz-Zawaa·id’ 3/257-258 no. 4783: “Reported by at-Tabaraanee in ‘al-Kabeer’.

[14] Reported by al-Bukhaaree no. 1903.

[15] Agreed upon. Reported by al-Bukhaaree no. 2009; & Muslim no. 759.

[16] Agreed upon. Reported by al-Bukhaaree no. 995; & Muslim no. 749.

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Reward for Returning Home from the Mosque

Imaam Muslim reports in his ‘Saheeh‘ (no. 251) from a narration of Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allaah sallAllaahu alaihi wa sallam said:

“Shall I not guide you to that by way of which Allaah wipes out sins and elevates the ranks? They said: ‘Yes, O Messenger of Allaah.’ He said: Perfecting the ablution despite the hardship and dislike [that a person may find], and taking many steps towards the mosque, and waiting for the next prayer after observing a prayer, that is just like holding the frontier [i.e. at the time of war].”

Shaykh Ibn Uthaymeen rahimahullaah in his explanation of ‘Saheeh Muslim‘ said:

((Should I not guide you to that by which Allaah wipes out sins and elevates the ranks)) :

i.e. of a person in paradise.

((They said: Yes, O Messenger of Allah. He said: Perfecting the ablution despite the hardship & dislike)) :

i.e. [due to] severe cold, or due to hot water, or pain in ones body, etc.

((and taking many steps towards the mosque, and waiting for the next prayer after observing a prayer)) :

Waiting [for the prayer] with ones heart and body; so waiting with ones body is that a person remains in his place of prayer until the next prayer; and as for waiting with ones heart then that is: whenever a person finishes from one prayer he [eagerly] awaits the next prayer; when will it come? So that he can stand before his Lord. [This is] due to his love of the prayer. Allaah has made the prayer a coolness for his eyes [i.e. a comfort for him]. And this is a sign of his true faith, as the Prophet sallAllaahu alaihi wa sallam informed. And Allaah has said:

وَمَا كَانَ اللَّهُ لِيُضِيعَ إِيمَانَكُمْ

Sooratul-Baqarah; (2):143

Allah would never cause your faith to be in vain.

The scholars have said: [Meaning]: You prayers towards Jerusalem.

((that is just like ‘ar-Ribaat’ – holding the frontier [at the time of war]))

Ibnnul Atheer said in his ‘an-Nihaayah fee Ghareebil Hadeeth‘: In origin it means establishing war against the enemy by fighting, and tying the war steeds and preparing them [for battle]. So he sallAllaahu alaihi wa sallam likened these righteous acts and forms worship [i.e. perfecting the ablution in times of hardship, taking many steps to the mosque, and waiting from one prayer to the next] to Jihaad.

He said: al-Qutaybee said: It means: being constant upon and adhering to purification, prayer, and worship.

an-Nawawee said: “In origin it means devoting oneself to something; so it is as if he dedicated himself to this act of obedience. Or it could be held to mean: This is the best type of striving, just as it is said: ‘The best type of Jihaad is striving against one’s own self’. Or it could be held to mean: This is a type from the types of Jihaad that is made easy and possible [for everyone to do]. And all of these sayings are good.”

Shaykh Abdul Muhsin al-Abbaad – may Allaah preserve him – said in his explanation of ‘Aadaab al-Mashy Ilas-Salaah‘, (vol. 5, pge. 121 of his ‘Majmoo‘):

And this reward, just as it is for going to the mosque, then it is also for returning [from the mosque after the prayer].

It occurs in ‘Saheeh Muslim‘ (no. 663) from a narration of Ubayy bin Ka’b radiyallaahu anhu said:

“There was a man – and I do not know of any other man whose house was farther than his from the mosque – he never missed the prayer (in congregation). It was said to him – or I said to him -: It you were to buy a donkey you could ride upon it In the dark nights and in the burning hot sand. He said: I do not like my house to be situated by the side of the mosque, for I (eagerly) desire that my steps toward the mosque and back from it, should be written for me until I return to my family. Upon this the Messenger of Allaah said: Allaah has gathered all of that (reward) for you.”

Imaam an-Nawawee rahimahullaah said in his explanation of Muslim:

“It contains an establishment of a person receiving reward for the footsteps for his returning from the prayer, just as he receives [the reward] for [every footstep he takes] going [to the prayer].”

Shaykh Ibn Uthaymeen rahimahullaah said in his explanation of Riyaadus-Saaliheen, vol. 2 pge. 200:

In it is a proof that [taking] many steps to the mosques is from the ways of [attaining] much good, and that if a person eagerly seeks and hopes for Allaah’s reward by doing that, then Allaah will write for him the reward for his coming to the mosque, and for his returning [home] from it.

And in Shaykh Ibn Uthaymeen’s explanation of ‘Saheeh Muslim‘ vol. 3 pge. 710 he said:

In it is a proof that a person is rewarded for his intention even regarding his returning from the mosque [when going back] to his family. So he has two rewards: (1) Before the prayer [i.e. walking to the mosque], and (2) After the prayer [i.e. returning from the mosque]. This is due to his seeking and intending Allaah’s reward by way of that.

Shaykh al-Fawzaan – may Allaah preserve him – was asked:

Q: Retuning home after prayer: Is it an act of worship?

A: Yes, it has been reported that his going to and returning from [the mosque] to his house are written for him. Yes.

See: http://www.alfawzan.af.org.sa/node/12000

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The Permissible Types of Backbiting – Imaam an-Nawawee

Imaam an-Nawawee rahimahullaah says in his book ‘Riyaadus-Saalihen’

256 – Chapter: What is Permissible From [the types] of Backbiting

Know that backbiting is permissible if it is due to a valid reason approved by the Islamic legislation, and it is not able to be attained [i.e. the valid reason] except by way of backbiting.

[translators note: Meaning: That a person has no other choice but to backbite in each of the following cases].

And that is in six cases:

(1) Complaining about oppression.

So it is permissible for an oppressed person to complain to the ruler, and the judge, and other than them – from those that have authority, or ability -, to aid him against his oppressor. So he says: “So-and-so oppressed me with such and such.”

(2) Seeking somebody’s help in changing an evil, and correcting sinful affairs by changing them into that which is legislated and good.

So he says to a person who can help him in that: “So-and-so does such-and-such; so prevent him from that.” And the like of that. And one’s intent in this case should be to reach the goal of removing the evil – and if he intends other than that, then it is forbidden to do so.

(3) When seeking a verdict.

So a person says to the scholar: “My father, or my brother, or my partner, or so-and-so oppressed me; is that [oppression] permissible for him to do? And what can I do to end such, and regain my rights, and prevent any [further] oppression?” And the like of these questions. So this is permissible if there is a need – however that which is safer and  better is that a person says: “What do you say regarding a man, or a person, or a partner, that does such-and-such?” Because that way the goal is attained without specifying who it is. Even still, it is permissible to specify; as we will make further mention of in the narration of Hind inshaaAllaah.

(4) Warning the Muslims from evil, and advising them.

And that is of various different types:

  • From them: Criticizing those who have been criticized from the narrators (in the chains of narration) and witnesses (in a court of law). And that is permissible according to the consensus of the Muslims. Rather it is obligatory if there is a need to do so.
  • And from them: Seeking advice when looking to get married to a person, or having shares  with him (in a business etc), or when entrusting somebody with something (such as money, gold etc), or when dealing with someone, or other than that, or when looking to move in to a residence –a person asking regarding his prospective neighbors. And it is obligatory upon the one being asked that he does not hide anything regarding that person’s situation. Rather he mentions the negative points, with the intention of advising the questioner.
  • And from them: If he sees a person of knowledge and understanding of the religion who frequents an innovator, or an open sinner – and takes knowledge from them – and it is feared that the person of knowledge & understanding will be negatively affected. [In such a case] it is upon him to advise him by making clear [that person’s] situation; with the condition that his intention is to advise. And this is from the things that people fall into error regarding, so it may be the case that that which leads a person to do such [backbiting] is envy and animosity, and the devil disguises that to him, and makes him think that it is advice. So [a person should] take note and be shrewd regarding this.
  • And from them: That a person has a position of authority but he does not carry out that which is obligatory upon him; such as if he is inappropriate for that position (unqualified), or he transgresses the bounds of his authority (i.e. he takes advantage of his position of power), or he is negligent, and the like of that. In this case it is obligatory to inform the ruler so that he is removed from that position, and someone who is suitable is appointed in his place. Or he [the ruler] knows of his situation so that he can be dealt with accordingly, and so he [the ruler] is not deceived by him. Rather he [the ruler] strives to admonish him, and encourage him with being upright, or he changes him [for someone else that is suitable].

(5) That a person is open with regards to his sin, or his innovation.

Such as the one who openly drinks wine, or steals other people’s things, or takes taxes [from people’s wealth] oppressively, or he takes charge of affairs of falsehood (such as innovations etc) – in [the like] of these cases it is permissible to mention about him that which he does openly, and it is forbidden to mention other than that from [his] faults – except if there is another [valid] reason to mention them [from the other five points].

(6) For the sake of identification.

So if a person was well- known by a ‘nickname’ such as ‘al-A`mash’ (the one who has severely impaired vision), or by ‘al-A`raj’ (the one who walks with a limp), or by ‘al-Asamm’ (the one who is deaf), or by ‘al-A`maa’ (the one who is blind), or by ‘al-Ahwal’ (the one who is cross-eyed); and other than that [from the nicknames] then it is permissible to identify them with that. However it is forbidden to call a person with such nicknames if the intent is to lower them. And if it is possible to identify them with other than that, that is better and foremost.

So these aforementioned six reasons the scholars have mentioned; most of them are agreed upon [between the scholars]. And the proof for them are the famous narrations.

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Do you Order Righteousness of the People and Forget Yourselves? – Ibn Rajab

Ibn Rajab[1] rahimahullaah mentions in his ‘Lataaiful-Ma`aarif’:

“A man said to Ibn Abbaas radiyAllaahu `anhumaa: “I want to enjoin the good and forbid the evil.”

So he said to him: “If you do not fear these three verses exposing you; then do so. Otherwise, begin with yourself.”

Then he recited:

أَتَأْمُرُونَ النَّاسَ بِالْبِرِّ وَتَنسَوْنَ أَنفُسَكُمْ

“Do you order righteousness of the people and forget yourselves.”

[Sooratul Baqarah; (2):44]

And His saying – He the Most High:

لِمَ تَقُولُونَ مَا لَا تَفْعَلُونَ كَبُرَ مَقْتًا عِندَ اللَّهِ أَن تَقُولُوا مَا لَا تَفْعَلُونَ

“Why do you say that which you do not do? It is most hateful to Allaah that you say that which you do not do.”

[Sooratus-Saff; (61):2-3]

And His saying – regarding the story of Shu`ayb `alayhis-Salaam – (where he said to his people):

وَمَا أُرِيدُ أَنْ أُخَالِفَكُمْ إِلَىٰ مَا أَنْهَاكُمْ عَنْهُ

“And I do not intend to differ from you in that which I have forbidden you.”

[Sooratul-Hood; (11):88]

[Source: ‘Lataaiful Ma`aarif fil-Mawaasim al-`Aam min al-Wadhaaif’ of Ibn Rajab; al-Maktab al-Islaamee edtn. pge. 41]


[1] Zayn ud-Deen Abil Faraj Abdur-Rahmaan bin Shihaab ud-Deen Ahmad bin Rajab al-Hanbalee, al-Baghdaadee, ad-Dimishqee [736H-795H] – rahimahullaah

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ISIS Burning the Jordanian Pilot – Shaykh `Abdul Muhsin al-`Abbaad

Shaykh `Abdul-Muhsin al-Abbaad – may Allaah preserve him – was asked on Thursday 16th Rabee`uth Thaanee 1436H, (coinciding with 5th February 2015CE):

Q: What do you say regarding that which Daa`ish (ISIS) have carried out by their burning of the [Jordanian] pilot; using as evidence [both] the speech of Shaykhul-Islaam ibn Taymiyyah, and their saying that it is permissible to seek vengeance from the enemy due to His saying:

وَإِنْ عَاقَبْتُمْ فَعَاقِبُوا بِمِثْلِ مَا عُوقِبْتُم بِهِ

And if you punish (your enemy, O Believers), then punish them with the like of that with which you were afflicted. [Sooratun-Nahl (16):126]

What is your advice? May Allaah preserve you.

A: These people are oppressive criminals, their actions are vile; and before this [incident] they would kill a person by slaughtering him with a knife – just as a sheep is slaughtered.

All of this is from exceeding the [legislated] bounds in seeking retaliation, and exceeding the bounds with regards to oppression, and carrying out a gruesome killing.

We say: this is not allowed – for no one punishes with fire except the Lord of the fire.

And killing – for those that deserve to be killed – is to be carried out in a way that is not sinful, & does not contain committing a forbidden act – there should be nothing impermissible involved.

These people [ISIS] themselves are not even upon uprightness, having with them matters that are ugly & go against the religion of Islaam.

Their origin that they [ISIS] are upon – is the same way as the Kharijites – those that declare the people to be disbelievers, and [they hold] that the people of major sins will remain in the Fire eternally.

This is from their actions, and their doing; and vengeance is not to be sought by committing forbidden acts.

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