The First Ten Days of Dhul-Hijjah

Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih al-Uthaymeen rahimahullaah was asked:

Q: O Shaykh, in a few days the month of Dhul-Hijjah will be upon us. What is your advice so that we can all take advantage of it? I hope you can clarify its excellence and virtue, and the actions that are recommended for us to do within it.

A: Yes. The ten days of Dhul-Hijjah (the 12th month of the Islamic Hijri calendar) start when the month of Dhul-Hijjah enters. And they end with the day of `Eid – the `Eid of sacrifice.

And action within them – the Messenger of Allaah sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam said regarding it: “There are no days during which righteous action is more beloved to Allaah than these ten days.” He was asked: “Not even jihaad for the sake of Allaah?” He replied: “Not even jihaad for the sake of Allaah, except for a man who goes out with his life and his wealth and does not return with either of them.” [Reported by al-Bukhaaree no. 969]

Therefore I encourage my Muslim brothers to take advantage of this great opportunity; and that they are plentiful in their performance of righteous action during these ten days of Dhul-Hijjah – such as reading Qur·aan, and making the various types of remembrance of Allaah: takbeer (saying ‘Allaahu akbar‘, Allaah is the Greatest), tahleel (saying ‘Laa ilaaha illaa Allaah‘, there is no deity that has the right to be worshipped except Allaah alone), tahmeed (saying ‘Alhamdulillaah’, all praise is for Allaah), tasbeeh (saying ‘SubhaanAllaah’ I declare Allaah free of all imperfections), giving in charity, and fasting. Strive as it relates to all of the righteous actions.

It is strange that the people are heedless regarding these ten [days]. You find them in the last ten of Ramadaan striving and diligent with regards to righteous action; however in the ten days of Dhul-Hijjah you barely find anyone differentiating between these days and other than them. However if a person were to do righteous action in these ten days he is reviving that which the Prophet sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam advised with from righteous action.

These ten days, if they enter and a person intends to sacrifice, then he should not take anything from his hair, his nails, or his skin. All of these he does not take from if he wishes to sacrifice.

As for the person who has the sacrifice done on their behalf, then there is no harm [in him doing so].

Based upon this, if someone wanted to sacrifice on behalf of himself and his household, then he should sacrifice one – as is the Sunnah. It is not obligatory upon the people in the household that they refrain from taking from their hair, their nails and their skin. Rather that is [only] binding upon the one doing the sacrifice; i.e. the father.

As for the statement which you hear: ‘It is forbidden for the one sacrificing and the ones having the sacrifice done on their behalf…’ then this is a statement of some of the scholars.

As for the narration; then the Prophet sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam said: “If one of you intends to sacrifice then let him not take anything from his hair, nor from his nails, nor from his skin.” [Reported by Muslim; no. 1977] Here the address is for those who wish to sacrifice.

If a person were to say: ‘The person intending to sacrifice travelled to perform Hajj – then once he has performed `Umrah he will [inevitably] trim his hair – even though he instructed his family to sacrifice.’

We say: there is no harm in this. Because trimming the hair is one of the rites of `Umrah that must be done. And likewise trimming or shaving the hair in Hajj, there is no harm in that – even if he does not know whether his family have performed the sacrifice or not.

Posted in Fiqh | Tagged , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment

From the Benefits of Hajj

Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih al-Uthaymeen rahimahullaah said:

Hajj has tremendous virtue and many great benefits:

(1) From them is His saying – He the Most High –:

لِّيَشْهَدُوا مَنَافِعَ لَهُمْ وَيَذْكُرُوا اسْمَ اللَّهِ فِي أَيَّامٍ مَّعْلُومَاتٍ عَلَىٰ مَا رَزَقَهُم مِّن بَهِيمَةِ الْأَنْعَامِ

Sooratul-Hajj; (22):28

[[Meaning: That they may witness things that are of benefit to them and mention the name of Allah on known days over what He has provided for them of sacrificial animals.]]

So in it – in addition to the fact it being an act of worship, and remembrance of Allaah the Mighty and Majestic – are things that are of benefit to the people.

(2) And from the benefits is people getting to know each other. I – for example – here in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, meet with people who have come from east Asia, and with people who have come from the farthest parts of Africa, and even further than that; and I do not know them and they do not know me previous to that.

And generally people getting to know each other results in their affinity. Meaning: the unification of their hearts, and the people having love for one another.

(3) And from them the benefits is trade; and trade has a great importance. Do the pilgrims import or export wealth? [The answer is] both – they export it and import it; they come with items and they leave with items. So there is benefit from both sides.

(4) And from the benefits is that which the poor people benefit from by way of what they receive in charity, and by way of the kindness the rich show to them, and by way of the sacrificing of the sacrificial animals.

(5) And from the benefits is being reminded of the Day of Resurrection – because of the people all wearing the same clothing, having the same appearance, and carrying out the same actions.

(6) And from the benefits is being reminded of the Day of Resurrection due to their passage in hordes; everyone going to their destination. And if you were to stop on the path on the day of `Arafah (9th of Dhul-Hijjah) and see the people you would be reminded of the gathering [when Allaah resurrects the people from their graves].

See: ‘Fathu Dhil-Jalaali wal-Ikraam’ of Shaykh ibn `Uthaymeen rahimahullaah; vol. 8, pp. 9-10.

Posted in Fiqh | Tagged , , , , | Leave a comment

Supplicating for Patience Unrestrictedly

Shaykh Abdul Muhsin al-`Abbaad – may Allaah preserve him – was asked:

Q: Is it allowed for a person to say in his supplication “Make me from the patient ones”? Because some of the students of knowledge have said to me: You must make that restricted by saying instead: “Make me – at the time of calamity – from those who are patient.”

A: Regarding having patience upon obedience to Allaah, and having patience in abstaining from sin; this is what a person requests. So there is no harm in a person saying: [Make me from] the patient ones in obedience [to Allaah], and from abstaining from sin.

As it relates to calamities, then restricting that [by asking Allaah to grant him patience at the time of a calamity] is no doubt better than asking [for patience] unrestrictedly.

Q: How then, do we understand the verse: “Our Lord, pour upon us patience and plant firmly our feet and give us victory over the disbelieving people.” [Sooratul Baqarah; (2):250] Do we make supplication with that?

A: No, that is when a calamity strikes; a person makes supplication with that. “O Allaah pour upon us patience”, “O Allaah make us firm” “O Allaah make us patient”, [a person supplicates with the like of this] when the calamity strikes.

As for before a calamity has struck then a person does not ask [for patience] unless it is in a restricted sense: at the time of calamity [he asks to be made] from the patient ones.

Posted in Fiqh | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Hitting Ones Children for the Purpose of Disciplining

  1. Shaykh Ibn Baaz rahimahullaah:

Q: What is the ruling on hitting children under the age of ten years, on what basis do they do this? And what is your advice? May Allaah reward you with good.

A: It is for the father and the mother to discipline their child if they see the need for that; even if the child was younger than ten, and even if he was younger than seven. If they saw the need to discipline their child – whether he was a boy or a girl – then there is no harm in that. However it is to be done with that which is appropriate, and does not harm the child. A light disciplining, that will benefit him and not harm him. Such as if he were to fight with his younger siblings, or mess up the house and caused harm, and the like of that – then he is to be disciplined with being hit lightly, or stern speech to deter him [from that], or a light hitting, or by preventing him from some things that he wants, until he becomes disciplined – by the mother or the father, or the older brother if he does not have a father or mother. Or by his paternal uncle, or his maternal aunt, in accordance with his situation. Meaning: those that raise him and look after him, it is for them to discipline him. Whether that person was ones mother, or father, or maternal uncle, or maternal aunt, or elder brother; in accordance with his circumstances. So the one who raises him and looks after him; he can discipline him with that which does not harm him. Something light that brings about benefit.

See: http://www.binbaz.org.sa/node/17865

  1. Shaykh Muhammad Naasir ud-Deen al-Albaanee rahimahullaah:

Q: Is it permissible to hit children for the purpose of disciplining them?

A: My view regarding this is based on his sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam saying: “Order your children with the prayer when they are seven [lunar] years, and hit them for it [i.e. if they do not comply] when they are ten [lunar] years, and separate between them in the beds.”[1]

And this narration means that one raising children – the father or the mother – it is not for them to hit their children due to this highly important matter, and it is the prayer; unless the child reaches the age of ten [lunar] years. As for before that [age]; then it is not for the father except that he uses fine speech sometimes, and he uses speech that has in it some harshness – in accordance with the age of the child – at other times. As for hitting, then it is not allowed unless the child has reached ten [lunar] years of age. This is what I understand from this narration.

  1. Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih al-`Uthaymeen rahimahullaah:

Q: Is it permissible to hit a young child if he makes a mistake? And will doing so have an effect on his psychology? And how should a person direct a young child in the early stages?

A: If the young child can be corrected through hitting – and it was a must – then there is no harm in that. And this is from the [well-known] customary practices of the people. However in the case disciplining was not brought about through hitting, such as a baby in the cradle, if he were to scream and then his mother hit him; this is not allowed. Because it causes him pain without having any benefit.

And this matter [of hitting] revolves around: if discipline of the young child established through hitting or not? And [even] if hitting did discipline him, he is not to be hit forcefully, nor is he to be hit on the face, nor is he to be hit in any place that may kill him. Rather he is hit on his back, or his shoulder and the like; in the places that he will not die as a result of. And hitting on the face has its dangers, because the face is the most elevated and noble body part a human has. So if he is hit on his face he receives humiliation and shame more than if he were to be hit upon his back. For this reason hitting on the face was prohibited.

  1. Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan may Allaah preserve him:

Q: Regarding hitting ones young children for the purpose of disciplining them – what is your view regarding that; and is it from [the ways of] disciplining?

A: Yes, this is what the Prophet sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam ordered with; in his saying: ‘Command your children with the prayer when they are the age of seven [lunar] years, and hit them for it at the age of ten [if they do not comply], and separate between them in their beds.”[2]

So the parent hits his child for the purpose of disciplining them. However he does not hit him forcefully. Rather he hits him so that the child feels pain but the hitting does not harm him, in accordance with the command of the Prophet sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam.

The guardian hits and disciplines, and the teacher hits and disciplines, and the parent hits and disciplines – within the guidelines of the Legislation. These are things that must be done. They are from cultivation, and for the welfare of the people. This is not from domestic violence, just as some people who have appeared [claim]. They warn against the fathers and the teachers rule and command, and they warn against hitting. Hitting has in it good; however it [also] has its limits, and its place. So we must carry out that which the Messenger sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam commanded with, because it contains in it benefit.

[1] Reported by Aboo Daawood no. 495. Shaykh al-Albaanee rahimahullaah said ‘Hasan, Saheeh’; good, authentic in his checking of Sunan Abee Daawood.

[2] ibid.

Posted in Fiqh | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Seeking Permission when Entering Upon Ones Mother or Sister and the Like

Allaah – the Most High – said:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَدْخُلُوا بُيُوتًا غَيْرَ بُيُوتِكُمْ حَتَّىٰ تَسْتَأْنِسُوا وَتُسَلِّمُوا عَلَىٰ أَهْلِهَا

Sooratun-Noor; (24):27

[[Meaning: O you who believe! Do not enter houses other than your own, until you have asked permission and greeted their inhabitants.]]

Imaam al-Qurtubee rahimahullaah said in his explanation of the Qur∙aan ‘al-Jaami` li Ahkaamil-Qur∙aan’:

The reason for the revelation of this verse is: that which at-Tabaree and other than him report from `Adee bin Thaabit that a woman from the Ansaar tribe said: ‘O Messenger of Allaah! When I am in my house upon a condition that I do not like anyone to see me upon; neither my father nor my son. So my father comes and enters the place I am in, and until now men from my family enter where I am, while I am in such a state – so what should I do? So the verse was revealed.

And he said: “…so if your mother or your sister were living in the same house as you then they [i.e. the people of knowledge] have said: you should [before entering the place they are in] clear your throat, or stamp your foot so that they are notified and aware of your entering…” “…Because ones mother or sister they could be upon a condition that they dislike that you see them in.

Ibnul-Qaasim said that [Imaam] Maalik rahimahullaah said: ‘And a man should seek permission from his mother and his sister if he wishes to enter the place they are in.’

And `Ataa bin Yasaar reported that a man said to the Prophet sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam: ‘Should I seek permission when entering the place where my mother is?’ He said: “Yes.” He [the man] said: ‘But I serve her.’ He said: “Seek permission from her.” So he [the man] consulted him three times. Then he said: “Do you like that you would see her naked?!” He [the man] said: ‘No.’ So he sallAllaahu alaihi wa sallam said: “Then seek permission from her” at-Tabaree mentioned it.

Shaykh Muhammad al-Ameen bin Muhammad al-Mukhtaar ash-Shanqeetee rahimahullaah said in ‘Adwaa al-Bayaan’:

“Know that that which is more apparent, and not befitting that one diverts away from is: that it is binding upon a man that he seeks permission when entering the place where his mother, or his sister, or his sons, or his daughters are; [from those of them] that have reached puberty. Because if he were to enter the place where those aforementioned were – without seeking permission –, then it is possible that his eyes may set upon the `Awrah (parts that should be covered) of those mentioned. And that is something impermissible for him.

And Ibn Hajr rahimahullaah said in explanation of the narration: ‘Verily! The command to seek permission when entering has been enjoined because of the sight, (i.e. that one should not look unlawfully at the state of others).’[1]

“And we take from it that it is legislated to seek permission from everybody – even from those relatives it is forbidden for him to marry; so that the `Awrah (parts that should be covered) is not exposed.

And al-Bukhaaree rahimahullaah reports in ‘al-Adab al-Mufrad’ from a narration of Naafi`: That the children of Ibn `Umar radiyAllaahu `anhumaa if they reached the age of puberty he would separate them. And they would not enter the place where he was except if they sought permission.[2]

And from `Alqamah: that a man came to Ibn Mas`ood and said: ‘Should I seek permission to enter the place where my mother is?’ He said: “[Yes]; for you would not wish to see her in every condition.”[3]

And from Muslim bin Nudhayr that he said: “A man asked Hudhayfah, saying: ‘Should I seek permission when entering the place where my mother is?’ So he said: ‘If you did not seek permission when entering upon her you may see that which you dislike.’”[4]

And from Moosaa bin Talhah [bin `Ubaydillaah] that he said: “I entered with my father to where my mother was. He entered, so I followed him. So he turned and pushed me until I fell back onto my backside. Then he said: ‘Do you enter without seeking permission?!’”[5]

And from `Ataa that he asked Ibn `Abbaas: ‘Should I seek permission to enter the place my sister is in?’ So he said: ‘Yes.’ I said: ‘But they live under my care.’ He said: ‘Would you like to see her naked?!’[6]

And the chains of narration for these reports are authentic.” End of Ibn Hajr’s speech.

So these narrations from these companions strengthen that which we have mentioned from seeking permission when entering the places where those we mentioned are. And this is something also understood from the authentic narration: ‘Verily! The order of taking permission to enter has been enjoined because of the sight, (i.e. that one should not look unlawfully at the state of others)’.[7] So seeing the `Awrah (parts which should be covered) of those mentioned is impermissible as you can see.

And Ibn Katheer rahimahullaah mentions in explanation of this verse:

“And Hushaym said: Ash`ath bin Sawwaar informed us: from Kurudoos, from Ibn Mas`ood that he said: ‘It is upon you to seek permission when entering where your mothers or your sisters are.’

And Ibn Jurayj said: I heard `Ataa bin Abee Rabaah narrating that Ibn `Abbaas radiyAllaahu `anhumaa said: “There are three verses that the people have neglected. Allaah the Most High said: “Indeed, the most honourable of you with Allah are those of you who are most fearful and obedient [to Allaah].”[8] He said: But they [the people] say: ‘Indeed the most noble of you with Allaah are the ones with the biggest houses.’ He said: ‘And the people have totally neglected and forgotten all of mannerisms.’ I said: “Should I seek permission to enter upon my orphan sisters under my care, if they are with me in the same house?” He said: ‘Yes.’ So I repeated it to him again; so that he would allow me, but he refused – saying: ‘Would you like to see her naked?!’ I said: “No.” He said: ‘Then seek permission.’ So I consulted him again. So he said: ‘Do you like that you obey Allaah?!’ I said: ‘Yes.’ He said: ‘Then seek permission.’

Ibn Jurayj said: And Ibn Taawoos informed me that his father said: “There is not I woman I dislike to see her `Awrah (parts that should be covered) more than those whom it is forbidden for me to marry.” He said: ‘And he was strict regarding that.’”

And Ibn Jurayj narrated from az-Zuhree, saying: I heard Huzayl bin Shurahbeel al-Awdee, al-A`maa [saying] that he heard Ibn Mas`ood say: ‘It is upon you to seek permission when entering where your mothers are. End.”

Ash-Shawkaanee rahimahullaah mentions in his explanation of the Qur∙aan ‘Fathul-Qadeer’:

“And Sa`eed bin Mansoor and al-Bukhaaree in ‘al-Adab’ report from a narration of Ibn Mas`ood radiyAllaahu `anhu that he said: ‘It is upon a man to seek permission when entering where his father, or his mother, or his brother, or his sister is.’”[9] And Ibn Abee Shaybah and al-Bukhaaree reported the like of that from a narration of Jaabir.[10]

And in the Kuwaiti Fiqh Encyclopaedia it states[11]:

“And if there are any of those whom it is forbidden for him to marry in his house – such as his mother, or his sister, or the like of them – from those that it is not permissible for him to see naked, whether male or female; then it is not allowed for him to enter upon them without seeking permission. This is the opinion of the Hanafis and the Maalikis. And seeking permission – according to them – in this case is obligatory; and it is not allowed to leave it off. To the extent the Maalikis say: whoever denies the obligation of seeking permission to enter has disbelieved, because it is from those things which are known from the religion by necessity.”[12]

It further mentions:[13]

“And the Shaafi`ees allow that a man enters upon those whom it is forbidden for him to marry – if they live with him – without seeking permission to enter. However it is upon him to notify them of his entrance with the like of him clearing his throat, or stamping of the shoes, and the like; so that those who are naked could cover up.”[14]

Shaykh ibn Baaz rahimahullaah was asked [15]:

Q: Regarding the people of a [single] household seeking permission when entering upon each other?

A: The Sunnah is that they seek permission when entering upon each other. This is what is legislated.  Even the husband should seek permission when entering upon his wife; for he may see her in a condition that is not appropriate. So it is befitting that he seeks permission from his family, so that they know of his arrival. And if there was anything that they needed to cover up, they could cover it up – so that he is not offended by anything. The intent is that seeking permission to enter is required from the husband, the slave, the brother, the paternal uncle, and the like of them.


[1] Agreed upon. Reported by al-Bukhaaree no. 6241; & Muslim no. 2156.

[2] Chapter 486: When your Children reach Puberty. Shaykh al-Albaanee rahimahullaah said in his checking of ‘al-Adab al-Mufrad’ its chain of narration is authentic.

[3] Reported by al-Bukhaaree in ‘al-Adab al-Mufrad’, Chapter 487: Seeking Permission when entering where ones Mother is. Shaykh al-Albaanee rahimahullaah said its chain of narration is authentic. Also reported by at-Tabaraanee in ‘Musnad ash-Shaameeyeen’ pp. 360 from a chain of narration of Huzayl bin Shurahbeel that he said: “I heard Ibn Mas`ood saying: ‘Upon you is to seek permission from your mothers [i.e. when entering where they are].’ Shaykh al-Albaanee rahimahullaah said: “And its chain of narration is good. All of the narrators are reliable.”

[4] Reported by al-Bukhaaree in ‘al-Adab al-Mufrad’, Chapter 487: Seeking Permission when entering where ones Mother is. Shaykh al-Albaanee rahimahullaah said its chain of narration is good. And in a variant wording it occurs the saying: ‘You may see that which offends you.’

[5] Reported by al-Bukhaaree in ‘al-Adab al-Mufrad’, Chapter 488: Seeking Permission when entering where ones Father is.  Shaykh al-Albaanee rahimahullaah graded it as having a weak chain of narration.

[6] Reported by al-Bukhaaree in ‘al-Adab al-Mufrad’, Chapter 490: Seeking Permission when entering where ones Sister is. Shaykh al-Albaanee rahimahullaah said its chain of narration is authentic. Ibn `Abbaas said: ‘So seeking permission is obligatory (upon all of the people).’

[7] Agreed upon. Reported by al-Bukhaaree no. 6241; & Muslim no. 2156.

[8] Sooratul-Hujuraat; (49):13

[9] Reported by al-Bukhaaree in ‘al-Adab al-Mufrad’, Chapter 491: Seeking Permission when entering where ones Brother is. Shaykh al-Albaanee rahimahullaah graded it as weak in his checking of ‘al-Adab al-Mufrad’.

[10] Reported by al-Bukhaaree in ‘al-Adab al-Mufrad’, Chapter 489: Seeking Permission when entering where ones Father or Son is. Shaykh al-Albaanee rahimahullaah graded it as weak in his checking of ‘al-Adab al-Mufrad’.

[11] Volume 3, pp. 146.

[12] See: Badaai` as-Sanaai` 5/124; & Ahkaamul-Qur∙aan of al-Jassaas 3/386; & ash-Sharh as-Sagheer 4/762; & Sharhul-Kaafee 2/1133; & al-Fawaakih ad-Dawaanee 2/427; & Tafseerul-Qurtubee 12/219.

[13] See footnote number 11.

[14] See: Mughnee al-Muhtaaj 4/199

[15] See: The Shaykh’s official website: http://www.binbaz.org.sa/node/8941

Posted in Tafseer | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

How should the Night Prayer be Prayed?

Imaam al-Hajjaawee said in his book ‘Zaadul-Mustaqni`’ [a very summarised book on the Fiqh methodology of Imaam Ahmad rahimahullaah]:

“And the Taraaweeh [prayer] is twenty units (rak`ahs).”

Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih al-Uthaymeen rahimahullaah said in his explanation ‘ash-Sharhul Mumti`’ vol. 4 pp. 65-71:

“And the Taraaweeh prayer is an emphasised Sunnah, because it is from the standing in Ramadaan. And the Prophet sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam said: “Whoever stands [in prayer] in the month of Ramadaan out of sincere faith and hoping for Allaah’s reward, then all his previous sins will be forgiven.”[1]

And it was called ‘Taraaweeh’ (lit. sitting for rest), because it is from their customary practice when they prayed four units, they would sit for a short while to rest – based on the narration of `Aaishah radiyAllaahu `anhaa: “That the Prophet sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam used to pray four units, so do not ask me about their beauty and their length, then he would pray four units, so do not ask me about their beauty and their length, then he would pray three units.”[2] The point being that she said: “He would pray four then…” And the word ‘then’ indicates: order with a delay, and that there was a break between the first four, the second four, and the last three.

And with each set of four he gives the tasleem (saying ‘as-Salaamu `alaikum wa rahmatullaah’ to end the prayer) after every two units, as was explicitly mentioned in the narration of `Aaishah: “That he would pray eleven units, giving tasleem after every two units.”

And this is in opposition to that which some of the students of knowledge imagine: that they think the first four are to be gathered together with a single tasleem, and the second four are to be prayed in a like manner. And this delusion [of theirs] comes partly from their lack of following [and gathering] between all of the chains for this narration [of `Aaishah]; and partly because of their failure to see the narration of Ibn `Umar – radiyAllaahu `anhumaa –, which is: “That the Prophet sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam was asked about the night prayer so he said: ‘In twos, in twos.’”[3]

Based upon this it is binding to understand every [general] unrestricted narration mentioning the number of units to be prayed at night in light of this restricting [specific] text. And it is: that they are to be prayed in twos.

As for those [texts which] explicitly mention not doing so [i.e. not praying in twos] – such as praying the Witr prayer with five, seven, or nine units – then they are specific and [separate] from the generality of [the ruling of] this narration.[4]

So if it is said: “Why did Aaishah say: ‘He would pray four, then he would pray [another] four’?”

We say the answer is: because he combined the first four at the same time; so he prayed two, then immediately prayed the other two. Then he sat and waited for a period, then he resumed and prayed two units – following them with two more units. Then he sat for a[nother] period, then he prayed three.

So the Salaf (pious predecessors) extracted from this: that the four units are to be prayed with two tasleems, then the people rest, then they pray four [more], then they rest, then they pray three – if they were to pray eleven units.

As for his [the author, al-Hajjaawee’s] saying: ‘Twenty units’ – if we were to add and complete that with the lowest number of units for Witr – we would end up with twenty-three units. Because Taraaweeh would be prayed with twenty units, then Witr with three units. So the total would be twenty three units. This is the standing in Ramadaan.

So what is the proof?

The evidence is that which Aboo Bakr `Abdul-Azeez reported in ‘ash-Shaafee’ from Ibn Abbaas ‘that the Prophet sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam would pray twenty units in the month of Ramadaan.’[5]

However this narration is weak, and incorrect as being from the Prophet sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam. And that which is authentically reported from him – via the one who was most knowledgeable regarding his affairs during the night – Aaishah, the Mother of the Believers, may Allaah be pleased with her that she said: “He would not increase upon eleven units.” When asked regarding the prayer of the Prophet sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam in Ramadaan; she said: “He would not increase upon eleven units inside of Ramadaan or outside of Ramadaan.”[6] And this is an explicit text from Aaishah, and she was from the most knowledgeable of people regarding that which he used to do at night.

So if someone was to say: “It has been mentioned regarding Umar ‘that he ordered Ubayy bin K`ab to lead the people in prayer with twenty-three units’.”

We say: this is also not authentic, rather it has been reported that Yazeed bin Roomaan said: “The people used to pray twenty-three units in Ramadaan during the time of Umar.”[7] However Yazeed bin Roomaan[8] did not witness the time of Umar – resulting in their being a breakage in [the chain of] this narration.

Furthermore this narration does not mention that Umar knew of that. And that which was done in the time of Umar is not a proof, unlike that which was carried out in the time of the Messenger – if he did not criticise it – then it is a proof; because the Messenger sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam if he knew something [and did not criticise it] then he approved of it, and if he did not know of it then the revelation approved of it. However in the time of Umar there was no revelation – so we do not describe Umar as being pleased with it unless it is clearly attributed to Umar. However [Imaam] Maalik rahimahullaah reports in ‘al-Muwatta’ with a chain of narration from the most authentic chains of narration ‘That Umar bin al-Khattaab radiyAllaahu `anhu ordered Tameem ad-Daaree and Ubayy bin K`ab to stand with the people in prayer [i.e. to lead the people] with eleven units.”[9]

So this is a clear evidence, and an order from Umar radiyAllaahu `anhu – and it is what is befitting from him – may Allaah be pleased with him, as he was from the most ardent of the people in clinging to the Prophetic way. So if the Messenger sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam did not exceed upon eleven units, then we hold that Umar bin al-Khattaab radiyAllaahu `anhu would cling tightly to this number.

Based upon this: what is correct regarding this issue is: that the Sunnah [Prophetic way] regarding the Taraaweeh is that it is eleven units. Ten units are to be prayed with even numbers [i.e. in twos], and one by itself as Witr.

And the Witr is as Ibnul-Qayyim mentioned: It is the one [single unit] – not the units that preceded it.”[10] So that which preceded it is Qiyaamul-Layl (Standing [in prayer] in the night), and the Witr is the one [single unit].

And if a person were to pray the Witr as three – after the ten – so that his prayer was thirteen units, then there is no harm. Because this is also authentically established from a narration of Abdullaah bin Abbaas radiyAllaahu `anhumaa: ‘That the Prophet sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam prayed thirteen units.’[11]

So this is the Sunnah.

Despite this, if a person were to pray twenty-three, or more than that – then he is not to be criticised. However, if he requested the people of the mosque not to increase upon the number that is Sunnah [authentically established from the Prophet sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam], then that is something they should agree with foremostly, because the proof is with them. But if they [the people] were to remain quiet and were pleased with [the Imam] leading them in prayer with ninety-nine units, then there is no harm in that.


[1] Agreed upon. Reported by al-Bukhaaree no. 2009; & Muslim no. 759.

[2] Agreed upon. Reported by al-Bukhaaree no. 1147; & Muslim no. 738.

[3] Agreed upon. Reported by al-Bukhaaree no. 990; & Muslim no. 749.

[4] Such as: the narration reported by an-Nasaaee no. 1698 from a narration of Aaishah that the Prophet sallAllaahu alaihi wa sallam would not give the Tasleem for the two units of witr. [Shaykh al-Albaanee rahimahullaah graded it as ‘Shaath’ – contradictory to that which is more authentic].

And the narration of Muslim no. 737 that the Prophet sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam would pray thirteen units at night, and he prayed Witr with five units – not sitting except at the end of them.

And from a narration reported by Ibn Maajah no. 1192 that the Prophet sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam would pray the Witr with five or seven units, not separating between them with Salaam (i.e. tasleem) nor any speech. [Shaykh al-Albaanee rahimahullaah said ‘Saheeh’, authentic.]

[5] Reported by Ibn Abee Shaybah in his ‘Musannaf’ 2/294; and al-Khateeb in ‘al-Muwaddhih’ 1/219; and al-Bayhaqee in his ‘Sunan’ 2/496. And al-Bayhaqee said: “It is weak”. Also declared weak by az-Zayla`ee in ‘Nasb ar-Raayah’ 2/153; and as-Suyootee in ‘al-Haawee’ 2/73; and al-Haafidh in ‘al-Fath’ 4/205-206.

[6] Agreed upon. Reported by al-Bukhaaree no. 1147; & Muslim no. 738.

[7] Reported by Maalik in ‘al-Muwatta’ 1/138; & al-Bayhaqee 2/496; & al-Marwazee in ‘Qiyaamul-Layl’ pp. 91.

[8] Yazeed bin Roomaan. He was: Aboo Rooh al-Asadee al-Madanee, the freed slave of aali-Zubayr. He was from the Taabi`een (the generation after the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam), reliable. The six books (Bukhaaree, Muslim, at-Tirmidhee, Abu Dawud, Ibn Maajah, an-Nasaaee) and others all report from him, he died 130H. See: ‘Tahdheebut-Tahdheeb’ 11/325.

And it has been reported from as-Saaib bin Yazeed that he said: “They [i.e. the people] would stand in Ramadaan during the time of Umar bin al-Khattaab radiyAllaahu `anhu with twenty units.” Reported by Abdur-Razzaaq 7730 and 7733; & al-Firyaabee in ‘as-Siyaam’ 1/76; & al-Bayhaqee in ‘as-Sunan’ 2/496; & al-Marwazee in ‘Qiyaamul-Layl’ pp. 91; & `Abdur-Razzaaq has the wording: ‘Twenty-one [units]’. And it’s chain of narration is authentic.

And Yahyaa bin Sa`eed reported: ‘That Umar bin al-Khattaab radiyAllaahu `anhu ordered a man to pray twenty for them. [i.e. to lead them in prayer]’. Reported by Ibn Abee Shaybah 2/393 – however in it[s chain] there is a breakage; as occurs in ‘at-Tuhfah‘ 2/85 of al-Mubaarakfooree.

And Abul-Hasnaa reported ‘that `Alee ordered a man to lead them in prayer during Ramadaan with twenty.’ Reported by Ibn Abee Shaybah 2/393; & al-Bayhaqee 2/497 and he declared it to be weak.

And it has been reported from `Abdul `Azeez bin Rafee` that he said: “Ubayy used to lead the people in prayer during Ramadaan with twenty, and he would pray the Witr with three.” Reported by Ibn Abee Shaybah 2/293; however it has a breakage in its chain of narration – as occurs in ‘at-Tuhfah’ 2/75.

And Zayd bin Wahb reported ‘that Abdullaah bin Masood used to lead us in prayer during Ramadaan … with twenty units, and he would pray the Witr prayer with three.” Reported by Ibn Nasr in ‘Qiyaamul-Layl’ pp. 91; however there is a break in its chain – as occurs in ‘at-Tuhfah’ 2/75.

And al-Marwazee reported pp. 91; & Ibn Abee Shaybah 2/393 from a narration of Ataa bin Abee Rabaah that he said: “I witnessed the people praying twenty units during Ramadaan, and they would pray the Witr with three.” And they (al-Marwazee & Ibn Abee Shaybah) also report from Shutayr bin Shakal – and he was from the companions of Abdullaah [bin Masood] ‘that he would lead them in prayer with twenty, and pray Witr with three.’

From the pious predecessors (Salaf) that did so [i.e. prayed twenty for Taraaweeh] – as reported by the previous references – are: al-A`mash, and Sa`eed bin Jubayr, and Aboo Mijlaz, and Ibn Abee Mulaykah, and Abul-Bakhtaree, and other than them. And this is clear proof of them not limiting it.

[9] Muwatta Maalik 1/115; & al-Bayhaqee 2/496.

[10] Zaadul-Ma`aad 1/329

[11] Agreed upon. Reported by al-Bukhaaree no. 1138; & Muslim no. 764.

Posted in Fiqh | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The Stages through which Alcohol was Prohibited

Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih al-Uthaymeen rahimahullaah said in his explanation of ‘Bulooghul-Maraam‘ ‘Fathu Dhil-Jalaali wal-Ikraam‘ vol. 7 pp. 9-10:

Likewise the prohibition of alcohol was in four stages:

(1) The First Stage: Permissibility – although this is not considered from the stages – as it was based upon the original principle [i.e. the original principle regarding all affairs before Islaam was permissibility, until the Legislation came with a proof lifting that and stating otherwise]. However Allaah mentioned that in His saying – He the Most High –:

وَمِن ثَمَرَاتِ النَّخِيلِ وَالْأَعْنَابِ تَتَّخِذُونَ مِنْهُ سَكَرًا وَرِزْقًا حَسَنًا

Sooratun-Nahl; (16):67

[[Meaning: And from the fruits of the palm trees and grapevines you take intoxicant and good provision.]]

(2) Then the Second Stage: in His saying:

يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ ۖ قُلْ فِيهِمَا إِثْمٌ كَبِيرٌ وَمَنَافِعُ لِلنَّاسِ وَإِثْمُهُمَا أَكْبَرُ مِن نَّفْعِهِمَا

Sooratul-Baqarah; (2):219

[[Meaning: They ask you O Muhammad, concerning alcoholic drink and gambling. Say: “In them is a great sin, and some benefit for people, but their sin is greater than their benefit.”]]

(3) Then the Third Stage:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَقْرَبُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَأَنتُمْ سُكَارَىٰ حَتَّىٰ تَعْلَمُوا مَا تَقُولُونَ

Sooratun-Nisaa·; (4):43

[[Meaning: O you who have believed, do not approach prayer while you are intoxicated until you know what you are saying.]]

Then the Fourth Stage:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِنَّمَا الْخَمْرُ وَالْمَيْسِرُ وَالْأَنصَابُ وَالْأَزْلَامُ رِجْسٌ مِّنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطَانِ فَاجْتَنِبُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ

Sooratul-Maa·idah; (5):90

[[Meaning: O you who believe! Intoxicants, gambling, sacrificing on stone alters, and arrows for seeking luck or decision are an abomination of Satan’s handiwork. So strictly avoid all of that in order that you may be successful.]]

Posted in Fiqh | Tagged , , , , , , , | 1 Comment